Let's remove all the taxes and monitoring on carbon usage and production. They're inefficient, expensive, and they don't focus where they need to. Instead, let's put a strict cap on the extraction of carbon : as coal, oil, gas, methane clathrates, ancient timber, and chalk (carbonate, used in steel production). No exemptions. Auction the extraction rights, so that the natural costs of carbon production are passed on to the customers.
Also, to enforce international cooperation, include imports from non-compliant countries in the extraction quotas. Each nation should have a tradable national quota, based on population.
Why is this idea important?
If adopted, this scheme would move us straight to a global carbon cap-and-trade system, with no haggling from the big polluters, vested interests, and developing nations.
The money raised from auctioning quotas could be used to protect vulnerable people against the hit of carbon poverty.