Such restrictions are a deliberate "small print" way to extract money from users. The relevance to the items above are :-
a) We read of many cases where an airline has refused to accept a passenger and forced them to buy a new expensive ticket e.g. "jenny jones" when her passpost shows "jennifer". after all, the ticket is for the transport of a person, not some conditional contract that requires a specific passenger.
b) It should not matter to the organisation who has the ticket, as the correct price has been paid. This is relevant for rail if one wanted to pass on the unused return ticket and for concerts, football etc. If the owner can get a good price for the icket, good luck to them.
c) As in the recent case of a lady joining the Newcastle to London train at Darlington, the ticket holder has alreadt paid more than enough, and should not be forced to to pay again.